Flipping the Classroom Day 2

Why video?

Flipping a classroom commonly begins with moving content that would traditionally be delivered in a lecture into online videos that students watch before attending an active learning class. As this often means there are no more face-to-face lectures, incorporating video that features you presenting material is not only a great way to incorporate content but also provides a great way for you to connect to your students and provides a personal point of contact in your course, particularly if your course is totally online.

To start our discussion, watch this short video which covers some of the considerations and possibilities for using video for in a flipped classroom.

The Flipped Class: Which Tech Tools Are Right For You?

Online videos are different from lectures

A great benefit of flipped classroom and videos is that you are no longer tied to a face-to-face one hour long lecture in a classroom. You can experiment with styles and delivery in new ways. Evidence shows that shorter videos which are focused on individual topics, rather than a long, wide-ranging recording of a face-to-face lecture, are more engaging for students (Guo, Kim, and Rubin 2014). With this in mind, let’s discuss some options.

Types of videos

Different types of videos suit different disciplines or content: what works well for a history course won’t necessarily work for a physics course. Think about the type of ideas or concept you need to communicate to your students, and what type of video you might need to do to best capture that. Some ideas include:

  • Film yourself explaining a concept or idea in a concise way.
  • Record a screen capture of a website or a power point presentation while you explain it.
  • Record a practical demonstration such as an experiment, case study or a field trip
  • Record the writing of equations or problems while you explain and discuss it.
  • Interview a guest expert
  • Use as a discussion starter for an activity
  • Weekly introduction to a topic

Tools for recording

There are an endless number of tools available for recording videos, from the webcam or camera in your mobile device to screen recording software to lecture recording platforms. At the ANU, Echo360 and Echo360 Personal Capture are offered to all staff.

Lecture Recording in Echo360

Echo360 is the lecture recording system installed in lecture rooms around campus. You can use this to capture existing classes and share them through the Echo360 block in your Wattle (Moodle) site, and you can edit the recordings to create shorter sections from a longer, face-to-face recording. Learn more.

Echo360 Personal Capture (P-CAP)

This new tool allows you to record yourself with a webcam, presenting or talking about a topic for example and allows you to record a screen capture as well as audio from your desk or laptop, and share it in the Echo360 block in your Wattle (Moodle) site. Learn more. 

Commercial Screen Recording Tools

There are many commercially available tools, such as Camtasia (PC or Mac), Screenflow (Mac), or QuickTime (Mac) for beginners, and more advanced (and expensive) tools like Adobe Captivate. If you are interested in the options for screen recording, this article lists many systems and their pros and cons for educators.

Tablet Capture

‘Explain Everything’ is a great tool that you can use on your iPad or tablet to do screen captures. You may want to demonstrate for example how to solve a detailed mathematical problem. Once you have captured the screen recording you can download it as an mp4 and add it into your course.


Getting Started

Before developing your video you need to think about how it will be used in relation to assessment tasks, if applicable, and the activities or ‘ in class component’ you are going to use them with.  If  your course is completely online thinking about how you will incorporate activities or the ‘what will students do’ component, such as forum discussions and wikis.

Here is a lesson plan template from New York University (NYU) that you might find useful as a starting point

Some tips for creating videos

  • Keep it short and to the point, aim for bite sized under ten minutes
  • Think about your audience
  • Avoid the ‘talking head’ throughout the entire video, incorporating images or PowerPoint slides or giving a virtual tour of a website will create a more interesting product.
  • If recording from your desk, try and be somewhere quiet without background noise and distractions
  • Have the room well lit
  • Have any PowerPoints or websites open and ready to go
  • Keep it simple!

Once your video has been produced and published you can then post it into your course site within Wattle and connect it with  activities, such as a forum discussion, wiki or quiz, where students could then discuss the video, work collaboratively on a task or answer questions about it.

We have a comprehensive list of video guidelines here

Some advantages of using video in your teaching

  • Caters to visual learners
  • Students can watch at anytime and anywhere
  • They can stop, pause and rewind to review and reflect  on the content

Share your thoughts

We invite you to share your thoughts or experiences with using video in this way in the comments. Some other questions you might like to consider are:

A few ideas

  • What types of video tools would be suitable for your classes?
  • What concerns do you have about using video?
  • What are some other advantages to using video?
  • Do have an example of when you used video and how did it work?


Use the comments section at the top of the post to share your thoughts

Remember: If you are participating in the course for professional development at the ANU, you will need to write a short response to receive credit for this course.



Guo, P.J., Kim,J., Rubin, R., (2014).  How video production affects student engagement: an empirical study of MOOC videos. Retrieved from https://groups.csail.mit.edu/uid/other-pubs/las2014-pguo-engagement.pdf



35 thoughts on “Flipping the Classroom Day 2

  1. Time to start experimenting. Plan template to consider and get ECHO 360 P-CAP installed.
    Working and teaching clinically in a hospital I think trying to make the videos on the wards would make them more interesting? Perhaps I need something to use on my tablet or other to record videos on the move?
    What do you suggest?

    1. Hi Michael. I have just used the recording function on the iPad or tablet and then produced as a video and then it can be editied. Here is a link to some video editing apps that have been reviewed and might be worth further investigation.

      I have also suggested Powtoons, which is free, and very easy to use and adds a bit of fun to any video.

      Here is an example of what you can do https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OvNK16_o-yQ

  2. Hi everybody,

    I’ve got a few questions and Id love to know what people’s thoughts are

    1) I know that the video said it’s best to create your own video and I can certainly see the reasoning for it. But the same reasoning could be used for textbooks (you know your students best so why not write a textbook for every course you teach?). Some videos out there are done very well. Concepts are explained well and production quality is far beyond a simple explain everything or Echo 360 capture. There is also talk in the learning and teaching space of academics more as “curators of content”rather than creators of content. I’m wondering what people’s thoughts are on this?

    2) I’m also wondering about alternatives to video. As much as I like video – what about simply getting students to read something before hand?

    Love to know people’s thoughts

    1. Hi David
      I think you make a good point – an important potential shift in the role of the academic is to being curators and collators of content as well as being creators. This has lots of benefits in terms of creating efficiencies for teachers as well as being able to use more refined video material. Some of that material may well be refinements of the teacher’s own material – or opportunities captured from discussions with visitors, guests, specialists etc.
      The point that the video makes is that a major benefit of making your own videos is ‘relational’. I can see where they’re coming from. The personal relationship between the teacher and student(s) is still so important, for creating trust and social presence, facilitating feedback and so forth. So it maybe that using some video created yourself – to connect with the students, to help them connect with the content – and then also using third-party videos as well could be a good option.
      I noticed our moderators used a third-party video ! Maybe we need a short personal video now to reinforce their social presence ? 🙂

    2. Hi David

      Like you, my thoughts were why video? Are there other ways to achieve this without having to create videos? I hope that this is explored later on in the course.


  3. I personally do like using videos in teaching especially given the course I teach is more abstract. I found students are more interested in what to follow if I play some youtube videos related to that week’s teaching materials (some real life cases), just it is not always easy to find something good even there are so many out there. Given most of the students even read the textbook on their smart phone, I do think there are more advantages in using the videos in learning and teaching. I do not however like the idea of recording myself especially if I am fully aware of it; it is different with being recorded when you give a lecture as you often forget you are recorded when you give lectures.

    1. It took me a long time to get over my dislike of being recorded! I still am not a fan of having my face recorded but I have learned to deal with listening to my own voice. I usually record screen-recordings with voice-over now. 🙂

  4. A few other tips for video – you can also make ad hoc recordings with Echo360 in lecture theatres at any time using the icon on the desktop computer. There also also tools at capture.anu.edu.au – basic basic tools that let you edit your Echo videos.

    Research from (I think) the Open University indicates that 6 minutes is an optimal time for online videos.

    There are a few tools out there – GoAnimate is one that I like – that will enable you to create animated videos with decent sounding text to speech using a range of voices. Here’s a demo I made a few years ago. (I think the payment model may have changed but it’s a worthwhile tool if you think you’ll get use from it) https://youtu.be/X9jZT09ApZ4

    On your point David, it’s far from the only tool and I think that readings still have an important part to play. It’s really about the nature of the content I guess.

  5. Hi All,

    Liking this coffee course. I’ve actually been in China for work this week, so it’s been good to still be able to do the course! Although the you tube videos haven’t worked in China! In Hong Kong now and able to see them. I enjoyed today’s, and I think there are a lot of useful points there. I am looking at doing something next year exam related online, so this has been useful. I’d be interested to hear others views on using assessment online (weaknesses and strengths) particularly with Wattle (Colin, this is something Anna, Jo and I will be chatting with you about on Monday). I’m going to have a little play now with some of this online video recording tools.

    1. Hi Steve – thanks for reminding us about YouTube videos not working in China! We will keep that in mind for the future but I’m glad you can watch them now. Let us know how your play with the video recording tools goes. I’d be keen to hear how you find them.

  6. I agree with David that there are some great video content about that is useful form some of my teaching> i have also done some recordings of my own. The thing i would say about my own videos is boring to listen too. I use iMovie, with powerpoint slides, photos and my voice over. so i appreciate the suggestions of freeware for perhaps working making improvements.

    1. Hi Gary. Its great that you are making your own videos already. If you would like to add a bit of fun to them Powtoons is a great free tool that you can use. You can put your PowerPoint slides or images in and then add some animations in there.
      Here is the link https://www.powtoon.com/

      I also agree with sourcing video content that is already out there. There is so much great material being produced, why reinvent the wheel?
      Alexander Street Press http://alexanderstreet.com/ is a fantastic database with video covering many topic areas and has the capacity for you to snip and just release sections of the videos and embed them in your Wattle (Moodle) course. You may need to talk to the library about what access we have to this database.

  7. I have a little experiences with Echo360 Personal Capture. I used it last year to pre-record the first three lectures of my course, as I was overseas during the first week of semester. I made the recordings at home using voice and hand annotation over my prepared powerpoint slides, just as I do in the lecture theatre. It was weird talking to a screen rather than people, but I eventually got used to it. It must have been OK, because I had no complaints from the 60 odd students taking the course.
    In relation to David’s point about reading as an alternative to viewing, I have observed that a significant number of students in my courses prefer this. My lecture slides are pretty comprehensive and I know anecdotally, and by subtracting recording view numbers and lecture attendance numbers from total enrolment, that some students are using the lecture notes I post on Wattle (usually a few days before the lecture) as their only source of input of course material. (Few students spend the $120+ on the recommended textbook.) On the other hand some students tell me that the routine of lecture attendance is what they need to keep them on track. This last point raises the issue of how much of a flipped class video set one should make available at any given time. Should the whole lot be there from the beginning? Or released in blocks? Or released in tiny chunks on an individualised basis, triggered by the student completing some task related to the previous chunk?
    PS: I did try to use Echo360 Personal Capture again in May/June this year, but an intervening upgrade had caused it to fail the final upload step on my Mac platform. The techos tried, but failed, to fix the problem. They told me I would be notified when it was working again, but I haven’t heard anything yet.

    1. Great question Malcolm about the amount of material to release at any given time. I’m of two minds about it myself. I have known many students who like to work ahead when they have the time, and would really benefit from having all/most of the video material available to them at once. But I also don’t want to overload or scare off those students who might be having a bit more trouble with the material by giving them too much at once. Perhaps blocks, as you mention, are a good solution.

      One of Wattle (Moodle)’s strengths is the “conditional release” function, where you can make resources available only after the students have done something else (ie: quiz opens after a video, or more material after the first is presented). Might be something to try? https://docs.moodle.org/27/en/Conditional_activities_settings

  8. Rather than focussing on what can I use the video for, why not reverse it and think what method of teaching best suits my topics and why? Some video, some presenting slides, etc. This possibly would give some variety across a course, which in my experience, students appear to like.

    1. That’s a really good point Narelle – I’m a big fan of looking at the teaching first and what you want to do with it and then finding the best tools to achieve this. Sometimes though, it helps to see what can be done with new tools (as we’re doing here) to trigger new ideas and directions.

  9. So many good points and comments shared by others here.

    I see great value in a teacher/lecturer providing video content for their students – I’m in agreement with Aliya that the relational aspect of the teacher/learner connection is one of the strengths of video content within course material. Seeing and hearing the facilitator/lecturer on-screen brings an authenticity, credibility and human touch that learners seek, no matter the subject matter.

    Agreed too, that a mix of PowerPoint, PowToon, videos produced by relevant organisations or clips from databases etc is part of keeping learners engaged. Something I’ve been having a look at recently and hope to utilise in a project I’m working on is H5P which makes it easy to embed interactive video, hotspot images and range of games https://h5p.org/content-types-and-applications. Thank you Grazia at CAP for showing me this free tool!

    My recent (and only experience) in creation of videos has been fun and challenging. Fortunately, I haven’t had to be in front of the camera! Fun in the sense of learning to use Camtasia and a bunch of new skills related to the process of making good-enough videos. Challenging in that I now have a more realistic picture of the time-investment required in the planning, scripting, filming and editing of 3-5 min videos featuring scholarly publishing and communications experts…How to pinpoint what is relevant for a more general audience rather than a strictly academic audience? Can a high school student understand this concept – what do I need to add for this group to make this more accessible? How can we chunk this 60 minutes worth of filming down to three 4 minute videos? What are the top tips/core takeways?

    I’m also interested in the idea of how much content to release and when. Thanks for that link, Katie.

  10. Thank you again.
    These days, I am thinking about how to manage the online course, because the face to face language course is inseparable from on-line one.

    In my face-to face course, I often use video recordings to teach language, because it is very useful to introduce something that I cannot directly show to students or to explain the context. It is also good to encourage students’ interests. I normally use YouTube video clip, because it is easy to access.

    However, if video is not running properly in a classroom or on Wattle, it makes a lot of problem to manage the class within the time limit. At the same time, I have to spend a lot of time to find the most suitable video on YouTube.

    Considering future language course, using video is still the useful way of teaching language.

  11. I really enjoyed the idea of the flipped classroom being a pedagogical solution with a technological component rather than a technological solution to a pedagogical problem.

    There are a couple of causes for concern with the use of videos in the flipped classroom for me. Firstly, access issues for students who may not have regular internet access. Secondly, ensuring that sufficient depth is given to the concepts and subject matter being taught via the videos – if there’s multiple short videos that students have to watch in order to gain sufficient understanding, are they really likely to watch all of them or just base their learning off those videos which they did watch and thus miss some of the depth of understanding that they otherwise might have gained.
    However, having used videos and recordings as part of my own learning, I do see the benefit in being able to stop/pause/rewind as you’re going along so that you can learn at your own speed.

    I like Malcolm’s suggestion of the individualised release of content. I’m not entirely sure how one would go about making that not terribly time consuming reality though…

    1. Hi Ayesha, you are bang on with some the issues with using video. While it may privilege some students and give them the ability to review over & over, other students may be disadvantaged by video (lack of broadband internet access, need for transcripts & captions). But to answer your question about individualised release of content – there is a feature in Wattle (Moodle) called conditional release. This allows you to set it so that students must do A before B before C – for example, they must watch a video, then answer a quiz question before getting handouts for class. In every activity in Wattle, you can set it so that it cannot be accessed without doing another action first. This will appear to the students as well. There is more info here: https://docs.moodle.org/27/en/Conditional_activities_settings

      Otherwise pop by one of our drop-in sessions on Wednesday at 12pm and we can help you set it up. (https://services.anu.edu.au/training/drop-in-wattle-consultation)

      1. That’s awesome! Thanks, Katie! 🙂
        Shall definitely have to investigate when convening something in the (hopefully) near future

  12. The video aspect would provide some of our audience (English as a second language) the ability to watch and rewind (if necessary) in addition to keeping them engage. I am working on same project as Imogen and agree with how to cut content down from 60 minutes down to three 4 minute videos. The answer could be to use Katies method “A before B before C – for example, they must watch a video, then answer a quiz question before getting handouts for class.” And use multiple videos.

  13. Thanks for the video making tips! I really enjoy making educational videos so fully appreciate these. 🙂
    I liked that the video you chose to use above mentioned inequity of access to technological tools. There is often an assumption that all students are tech savvy or have access to devices when this is actually not always the case. Often people say, well students can access computers at the library – but then this is dependent on opening hours and if that student also has to work and support a family, then things get complicated. I was glad to be reminded that burning things off onto a disk or USB for students, as well as hosting them online, could assist in making video materials more accessible.
    I also agree very strongly with the point about relational identities that the video raised. Although you can borrow and utilise other content, in my experience there is no substitute for being visually and aurally present for your students, both in-person and online.

  14. I think that it would be helpful in the future for me to record short videos for my students. I particular, to create a short video for each theoretical concept I cover in my course would be great, rather than covering several of these in a lecture. The students get overwhelmed and confused when I talk about different complex theories over a two-hour lecture. It would be far better, or perhaps a useful addition, to create one video for each concept which they can review repeatedly, if necessary.

    I think there are benefits to videos over reading material in some cases, but videos certainly aren’t a replacement for reading. I personally like to watch videos (or listen to well-produced podcasts) on concepts that are new to me because it gives me an overview which I can take in passively before I start reading. This can make the reading material more accessible because I’m now familiar with some of the ideas. Going cold into academic reading on something unfamiliar can put some students off – especially if the reading is dense or not well written. Videos can be a friendly entry point!

  15. I used to support Law academics in creating their own videos and I found the Echo360 Personal Capture to be really easy to use. It also had the advantage of being “attached” to one’s Wattle site. Some of the other tools that we experimented on were Jing, Camtasia and Storyline360.

    Often, academics come to me asking technical help on how to use a certain tool or software to create a video. Before I help them, I usually ask them “why?”. Why are you creating a video? What do you want to achieve by having this material as a video? Some of them have very good pedagogical reasons while some of them think it’s what students want so they’ll make a video.

    I think there are content or topics that could be best delivered using videos, while others will work well with just text. In Medicine, Objective Structured Clinical Examinations or OSCEs are examples of content that are best shown thru a video e.g. how to examine the abdomen, knee examination etc. In Law, some academics created screencasts showing how a legal document should be read. They showed a legal document and annotated them, talking thru the different parts of the document. This worked really well because most of the explanations were too long for text and the student can listen to the explanation while looking at the actual document at the same time.

    Concerns I have about producing video:
    1. While I understand that educational videos don’t need to meet Hollywood standards, I still want to give students good quality videos. I understand that a bit of natural noise in the background, uhmms and pauses in the audio, crude illustrations, natural setting (e.g. faculty room with “messy” bookcases in the background”) give a video a personalised, spontaneous feel. But I also think a bit of professionalism or maybe a standard would be good?
    2. My concern above opens up other related issues such as the need for support staff who will help the academics, hardware, software, even training perhaps?

  16. One concern that I have about videos is that I feel the pressure to produce something that is very high quality because it’s not ‘live’ like an Echo recording but pre-prepared: overlaid images, videos, all the bells and whistles. But with the time requirements for a quality production this quickly becomes impractical and not worth the time and effort investment, especially if you don’t teach the course regularly. Doing an Echo pre-recording or a screen capture sounds more manageable, but then there are some great videos out there that are much more sophisticated than that. I understand the ‘establishing rapport’ with the students argument, but maybe it could be a collection of videos (and text materials), some produced by the lecturer and some sourced from elsewhere.

  17. Some of my concerns about video echo previous comments. Videos are not as accessible as we think. In addition to technological accessibility (internet, hardware, software, geography/politics, etc), there are also issues of physical accessibility, especially for the hearing and vision impaired. For example, note the lack of captions or transcripts on the videos used in this Coffee Course so far.

    I think there are other tools that can be much more accessible, such as good old readings. I hope we get to explore these avenues in the coming posts.

    1. Hi Bhavani, I really appreciate your point about accessibility. Captions and transcripts for videos are one key area – we get captions for any videos that our team makes, but if we are sharing videos created by someone else it gets more difficult to do so. We talked a lot about this in the “Universal Design for Learning (UDL)” course http://anuonline.weblogs.anu.edu.au/projects/universal-design-for-learning-udl/ but you are absolutely right that new types of formats like video and multimedia are more challenging to make accessible compared to traditional text-based materials.

  18. I love the idea of using video in teaching, and am really excited by some of the additional tools mentioned here and in the comments. I like the idea of using something like PowToons to give some added personality to videos, as well as the screen capture technology. I think for anyone wanting to start using video in their courses, providing a weekly summary video where you outline the key ideas from that week, and the main learning outcomes for students in 3 minutes would be an achievable starting place. A few people have mentioned that they feel that they sound boring in videos — I just completed the Presenting to Camera workshops with Amanda Burrell, and if you ever have the chance to do them (they were offered through ANU), I would absolutely recommend it, even through it is a very confronting experience.

  19. I have enjoyed using a variety of different tools and types of video in my own educational practice and in leading the creation of videos in other disciplines. Powtoon was lots of fun but I don’t use it regularly so it takes me a bit of time to create a video with this. So I typically rely most on screen capture with animated powerpoints and/or annotation. Having said that, the videos I created with Powtoon I have been able to use for 100s of students each year which has made it good value over time. Similar to others in this thread, I like to ensure videos are good quality. I would like to look into more research about this aspect in relation to student learning. Even though I have created lots of videos for my own students I have been reluctant to make these publicly available or promote them via social media ….. I think this also comes back to the quality aspect….is it good enough? is it all 100% accurate with regard to content? is the production quality sufficient? what will my peers think? I would be interested to hear about how others make the decision on whether to release their video external to the university…..or not? or share with other institutions?

  20. Fascinating thread above. I am actively looking to work on a suite of 4-6 short videos to cover fundamental concepts for a course which I am hoping to run next year. Two points I’ll make on this – the second point worth underlining as it has not yet been raised above and is a huge deal. First point, in an ideal scenario, where I have time and budget up my sleeve, I’ll be seeking to engage with colleagues around ANU to produce these videos, either as a ‘fireside chat’ where I direct questions, or as stand-alones. This is because we are blessed with an abundance of world-class scholars at ANU – I want to bring in their insights and also the wide array of voices, accents, gender and age, in my videos, to demonstrate diversity of thought which underpins academic endeavours. This leads to second point, namely, yes of course my colleagues will be paid at the set rate for their time. However, as far I know, and indeed one of the selling points for the video approach, is how cheap it is – you ‘buy’ 10 hours all up to produce material which will have potentially 5,10,20? years longevity – so this model is essentially cannibalising an already extremely precarious job force (I am a casual sessional academic, by the way). In essence, potentially writing myself out of a future job. This is a big deal. This can shake up our career paths, or am I being too melodramatic? While it will make great course content, I may not be the one to deliver it after the first year. That’s an ominous thought.

  21. I read this thread with great interest. I share some of the concerns raised: I don’t like seeing myself on tape either! But that’s not my major worry. As Ksenia indicated, a lot goes into a quality video production. And in some fields, there may be excellent free resources out there – as Jeong indicated. When you’re working with time constraints or other practical limitations, I think they can be an excellent alternative!
    And to touch upon what Malcolm said about reading vs viewing: I would not place one above the other, but would try to provide a good mix. This is certainly essential in my field, language teaching. You want to make sure that students practise their reading, writing, listening and speaking skills on a regular basis. Some can be done more easily in a classroom setting, others lend themselves better to the ‘distance component’.
    On that note, and linking back to the topic – what about having your students record themselves? Inspired by one of my former colleagues (also a foreign language teacher), I have experimented a bit with this. I would set a ‘challenge’, e.g. “interview a native speaker”, and have students upload the videos. I would show some videos in class – they can make excellent listening exercises or can spark a really interesting discussion activity.

  22. I have to admit that the thought of videoing myself talking is somewhat terrifying. A very small first step that I would like to take would be to add a verbal explanations to animations I have already created for use in online lessons. Currently these rely on text labels to explain what is going on; an audio description would probably be more effective and could easily be incorporated using video editing software. From a student’s perspective, an online lesson probably seems quite removed from the personal contact of a fairly interactive lecture or even an Echo360 recording of a lecture where the lecturer can be heard to be actively engaged with the students. The use of a video introduction to an online lesson, or video explanations of concepts, might serve to make these lessons more personal as well as more connected to the face-to-face content and thus encourage greater participation in pre-class activities. On another note, video could also be used to provide vocational relevance to the lesson content. Very short videos of practitioners explaining how the particular concepts being studied impact on their professional lives, or of later year students outlining how these early lessons are contributing to their later learning, might help to put some of the more ephemeral content into context when embedded within an online lesson.

  23. I have played around with a few versions of short videos but found that the PPT and explain worked better for me. I developed videos for content summary and assessment overviews. I am now steering away from the traditional PPT delivery and looking into other formats – I like the look of HP5, goanimate, lightboards etc which I am looking forward to testing out soon.

    1. Hi Emmaline, I’m just curious what it is about the “PPT and explain” approach that you found more effective for you? I think there is a tendency to go straight to the “talking head” type video without considering some of the other options – was this your experience also?

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